_ Vol. 28 (2) (2000) pp. 139-157 _
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Fluid Dynamics Research, Vol. 28 (2) (2001) pp. 139-157
© 2001 The Japan Society of Fluid Mechanics and Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
PII: S0169-5983(00)00025-3

Turbulence structure in boundary layers over different types of surface roughness

R.A. Antonia a * meraa@cc.newcastle.edu.au and P-Å. Krogstad b

a Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Newcastle, University Drive, NSW 2308, Australia
b Department of Mechanics, Thermo and Fluid Dynamics, Norwegian University of Science & Technology, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway

Received 6 December 1999; received in revised form 26 April 2000; accepted 1 August 2000

Abstract

The classical treatment of rough wall turbulent boundary layers consists in determining the effect the roughness has on the mean velocity profile. This effect is usually described in terms of the roughness function DeltaU+. The general implication is that different roughness geometries with the same DeltaU+ will have similar turbulence characteristics, at least at a sufficient distance from the roughness elements. Measurements over two different surface geometries (a mesh roughness and spanwise circular rods regularly spaced in the streamwise direction) with nominally the same DeltaU+ indicate significant differences in the Reynolds stresses, especially those involving the wall-normal velocity fluctuation, over the outer region. The differences are such that the Reynolds stress anisotropy is smaller over the mesh roughness than the rod roughness. The Reynolds stress anisotropy is largest for a smooth wall. The small-scale anisotropy and intermittency exhibit much smaller differences when the Taylor microscale Reynolds number and the Kolmogorov-normalized mean shear are nominally the same. There is nonetheless evidence that the small-scale structure over the three-dimensional mesh roughness conforms more closely with isotropy than that over the rod-roughened and smooth walls.

*Corresponding author. Tel.: 61-49-216-186; fax: 61-49-217-485
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